This is a 3.9kDa peptide of 36 amino acids called -defensin-1 (hBD-1), which has a peptide plate with three intramolecular disulfide bonds. It is composed of various epithelial tissues including urogenital tract and respiratory tract. Its expression can also be induced in human skin keratinocytes by lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan. hBD-1 exhibits antibacterial activity against several pathogenic microorganisms including Escherichia coli, although its activity depends on salt sensitivity because it is inhibited by salt in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition to antibacterial activity, hBD-1 can also attract HEK293 cells expressing CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 6, which indicates that the peptide uses CCR6 as a receptor
Niyonsaba F and Ogawa H. J Derm Sci. 40, 157-168 (2005).